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Kandahar is the capital of Kandahar Province, and also the center of the larger cultural region called Loy Kandahar.
The Arghandab River runs along the west of the city. Kandahar is one of the most culturally significant cities of the Pashtuns and has been their traditional seat of power for more than 300 years.
The now "Old Kandahar" was founded in 330 BC by Alexander the Great, near the site of the ancient city of Mundigak (established around 3000 BC).Ibn Batutta mentions Kandahar in the 14th century by describing it as a large and prosperous town three nights journey from Ghazni.An alternative story describes Khandahar as Gandhara in Mahabharata ruled by Suvala and later by Shakuni.The city eventually became part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (250 BC-125 BC), and continued that way for two hundred years under the later Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BC – 10 CE).
King Menander I (165 BC – 135 BC) of the Indo-Greek Kingdom practiced Greco-Buddhism and is recorded by the Mahavamsa (Chap.
The founder of the empire, Chandragupta Maurya, confronted a Macedonian invasion force led by Seleucus I in 305 BC and following a brief conflict, an agreement was reached as Seleucus ceded Gandhara and Arachosia and areas south of Bagram to the Mauryans.